First issue of Chemical Abstracts, is published in 1907, featuring summaries of findings from scientists worldwide.
St. Berchtold’s Day, Switzerland. Named for Duke Berchtold V of Zähringen, who founded Bern, the capital of Switzerland. Eating nuts is a tradition on this day.
Henry Bradley patented oleomargarine in 1871. This butter substitute was touted for its health benefits — until more studies clouded the picture.
In 1891, Herbert H. Dow discovers way to produce bromine, opening the doors for major chemical production in the U.S.
Death of food chemist George Washington Carver, who discovered hundreds of new uses for crops such as the peanuts.
This chemical, found in the flesh and seeds of chili peppers, can put a sizzle in a cold January day.
Sir John Ernest Walker born 1941, helped unravel the process that creates ATP, the molecule that transports energy throughout the body.
When winter weather hits, air travelers can jet off to warmer climates, thanks to these chemicals, which dissolve snow and ice and then keep the water from refreezing.
What makes an acid an acid and a base a base? Søren Sørensen, born 1868, figured this out when he introduced the concept of pH as a measure of hydrogen ion concentration.
This scientist developed a way to extract oxygen from the air, making it available to hospitals and industries and for use as rocket fuel.
January 1922, the first successful treatment of diabetes with insulin, co-discovered by chemist Charles Best.
1916 birth of American chemist Ruth Rogan Benerito, a pioneer in the development of wash- and-wear fabrics. Her research resulted in the development of cotton fabrics that are crease and stain resistant and better able to retard flames.
National Eye Care Month: These shades aren’t just cool, they help protect eyes from the sun’s high-energy UV light.
This date marks the death of Paul Vieille, discoverer of nitrocellulose, a key ingredient in nail polish and gunpowder.
Eleuthère Irénée du Pont founded the DuPont company in 1802. January marks the anniversary month of the arrival of the du Pont family in America in 1800.
Fermium, a radioactive rare earth metal, was first isolated and identified by scientists in 1953 at University of California, Berkeley.
When Nature fails to drop enough snow or brings a January thaw, skiers use this to keep thing moving smoothly.
In 1861, Hans Goldschmidt found a simple way to produce and use very high temperatures by mixing aluminum with a metallic oxide. The process is used in welding. Today, scientists working at the nano-scale are designing similar techniques in which a filler metal is melted to join metal pieces together.
Harry Fisher, born 1885, inventor of rubber technology, helped the U.S. rubber industry replace tons of natural rubber with a synthetic substitute.
Horace Wells, born 1815, gave patients a fit of giggles when he became the first to use nitrous oxide, or laughing gas, as an anesthetic.
Separation of Rare Earth Elements — used in aluminum baseball bats, electronics and green technologies — first described in 1907.
King James I charters the first English organization of pharmacists, 1617, long before these inactive ingredients in medicines could help drug delivery.
In 1911, Nobel Laureate Marie Curie’s nomination to the French Academy of Sciences is rejected by the Academy’s all-male membership.
Gold discovered at Sutter’s Mill, Calif., 1848, causing the ‘49er gold rush. Today, another type of gold rush is on, as companies “prospect” for solutions on the Internet.
Robert Boyle, born 1627, described the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas. Boyle’s law is used to calculate the volume and pressure of internal-combustion engines and steam engines.
For the first time in history, a change was made to the atomic weights of some elements listed on the Table of Standard Atomic Weights of the chemical elements found in the inside covers of chemistry textbooks worldwide.
F. August Kekulé presented his six-sided benzene structure to the Société Chimique in Paris, 1865.
Kathleen Yardley Lonsdale determined the crystal pattern of molecules using X-ray crystallography, part of a lifetime of fundamental contributions to the study of the of molecules using x-rays.
1978, Sweden becomes the first nation to curb aerosol sprays to halt CFCs and destruction of the ozone layer.
Peter Agre, born 1949, discovered “channels” that transport water through cell membranes, garnering him a 2003 Nobel Prize. Studies of the channels have helped in understanding kidney disease.
Birth in 1881 of Irving Langmuir, renowned chemist and Nobel laureate who was namesake for an American Chemical Society journal.
National Dental Month: Exotic compounds discovered by using high-throughput technology help take the pain out of dental work.
Leaded gasoline hit the U.S. market in Dayton, OH, 1923, when Thomas Midgley, Jr., of General Motors Research labs added tetraethyllead to gasoline.
Chinese New Year: To celebrate, families may give their homes a thorough cleaning, sweeping away any ill-fortune to make way for good luck in the new year. Showers are often one of the least enjoyable places to clean.
In 1915, Joseph Goldberger begins the experiment that demonstrates that pellagra is a dietary disease. Pellegra is caused by having too little niacin or Vitamin B3 in the diet.
In February 1960, materials engineer Roger Bacon published findings on studies of graphite and carbon fibers, which contributed to a revolution in the heat-resistant materials used in aircraft and satellites.
Commemoration of test strips, used by millions to help manage diseases such as diabetes as well as kidney and liver conditions.
Four years before Mendeleev announced his Periodic Table, John Newlands organized the known elements by listing them in order by atomic weight, according to his “Law of Octaves.” His method, published in Chemical News Feb.7, 1863, was ridiculed at the time.
Robert Holton announces total synthesis of taxol, an important cancer drug, 1994. Taxol is used to treat breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma.
Adam’s Peak Pilgrimage, Sri Lanka: Pilgrims of all religions flock to climb the steps on this steep mountain path, which is illuminated with light.
Ira Remsen, born 1846, founder of American Chemical Journal, made life sweet for millions when he discovered saccharin.
British radiochemist Frederick Soddy coins the word “isotope” for elements that appeared to occupy the same place on the periodic table.
Death of Moses Gomberg, 1947, who opened the study of free radicals in 1900 when he inadvertently prepared the first one, triphenylmethyl. Free radicals are essential to body functioning and are used in the production of plastics and other synthetic materials.
In 1990, the U.S. space probe Voyager I captured a series of photographs of the sun on a voyage to the edge of the Solar System. Today, scientists are working to develop new materials and strategies for designing photovoltaic systems that convert sunlight into electricity.
This ‘silly’ toy made its debut this week in 1950 at the International Toy Fair in New York City.
In 1897, Ferdinand Braun published a paper in the journal Annalen der Physik und Chemie describing his “Braun tube,” which was the first cathode-ray oscilloscope. He developed this as a method to record and study the time dependence of alternating currents.
Synthetic diamond makers are targeting the gem market first, but their product could transform many other industries, too
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev cancelled a planned visit to a factory and stayed at home working on the problem of how to arrange the chemical elements in a systematic way. These documents, still in existence, mark the beginning of the form of the Periodic Table used today.
John Sinfelt, born 1931: His research allowed refiners to remove lead alkyls from gasoline years before the mandated deadline.
Svante Arrhenius was first to speculate that changes in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere could alter surface temperatures through the greenhouse effect.
In 1773, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier described a new nomenclature for chemistry which clarified the distinction between elements and compounds.
Edwin Land demonstrates Polaroid camera to an Optical Society meeting, 1947, after his daughter asks why she had to wait so long to see her picture.
Friedrich Wöhler wrote a letter to J. J. Berzelius stating that he had synthesized urea, making an organic compound from inorganic materials, 1828. Wöhler and colleague Justus von Liebig were friends who helped make organic chemistry a field of systematic study.
Birthday in 1884 of Polish biochemist Casimir Funk, who realized that certain substances in food were essential to good health, and named tham “vitamines,” with “vita” meaning vitality and “amines” meaning chemical compounds containing nitrogen.
In 1938, DuPont began commercial production of nylon toothbrush bristles for the so-called “Miracle Tuft Toothbrush.” Before 1938, the world relied on toothbrush bristles of neck hairs from wildwild boars and hogs. Today, chemists are still developing new materials to keep you smiling.
Reinhold and Ruth Erica Benesch co-discovered how hemoglobin works like an oxygen delivery truck, carrying oxygen molecules to cells that need it. Ruth Erica Benesch was born this day in 1925.
1931 death of Otto Wallach, who analyzed fragrant essential oils to determine the molecular structure of terpene compounds. Terpenes were of importance in medicine and the perfume industry.
Black History Month, February the United States and Canada and September in the United Kingdom, celebrates the achievements of individuals like Henry Aaron Hill, the first African-American president of the American Chemical Society.
Linus Pauling, born 1901, applied quantum mechanics to the study of molecular structures and chemical bonding. He received the 1954 Nobel Prize for Chemistry and introduced the concept of electronegativity — the ability of an atom to attract electrons to form bonds.
Pfizer opened the world’s first large-scale penicillin facility in 1944, making it possible to mass produce germ-killing medicine.
In 1784, Jean Pierre Blanchard made his first successful ascent in a self-built balloon. The following year, he and American physician Dr. John Jeffries, made the first flight over the English Channel.
National Bureau of Standards, later named the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), created in 1901.
Today in 1947, Willard Libby and coworkers developed radiocarbon dating, a method used to determine the age of ancient mummies and fossils.
A variety of waxes, oils, pigments, and emollients in this product have helped people put on a happy faces for years.
In 1899, Felix Hoffman was issued a U.S. patent for Aspirin. He had successfully created a chemically pure and stable form of acetylsalicylic acid in 1897. Aspirin is still used today to fight pain and swelling.
Air-filled tires came in 1888 when John Boyd Dunlop wrapped a rubber tube inflated with air around the wheel rims on his son’s tricycle. Too bad he didn’t have this on hand.
International Women’s Day, first observed March 19, 1911 in Germany, is now a day of global celebration of women, including those in the chemical industry.
Susan Soloman, who led a team to study a mysterious ”hole” in the ozone layer over Antarctica, reported her findings to a U.S. House subcommittee in 1987.
Aaron Lapin received a patent in 1955 for what may have been the first mainline aerosol food product — whipped cream dessert topping in a spray can — as food technology began its march toward the modern era of molecular gastronomy.
Henri-Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville, born 1818, invented the first industrial process for producing aluminum. In 1854, he built on earlier work of German chemist, Friedrich Woelher, and found a method of preparing aluminum, based on aluminum chloride and sodium.
The molecule that is the basis for heredity, DNA, contains the patterns for constructing proteins in the body, including the various enzymes. A team of scientists, Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins determined its structure.
Joseph Priestley born in 1733 discovered the gas that would later be named oxygen, answering the age-old question, “How do things burn?”
Physicist Albert Einstein, born this day in 1879, made contributions to the development of modern chemistry as well. His explanation of the photoelectric effect became the basis of the quantitative laws of photochemistry, as noted in this 2005 article.
In 1806, a 6-kg meteorite carrying carbon-based, organic chemicals was identified for the first time. Studies of meteorites may lead to a better understanding the origin of the solar system.
Synthetic Rubber Program first described in 1928. Export restrictions of natural rubber sparked interest in finding ways to synthesize the material.
Norbert Rillieux’s strange-sounding invention, the Multiple Effect Evaporator under Vacuum, revolutionized sugar processing, making it safer, cheaper, and more efficient.
Gilman Hall, chemistry building at the University of California, Berkeley, dedicated in 1918. Research done here has resulted in two Nobel Prizes.
Frédéric Joliot-Curie worked with Marie Curie and married her daughter, Irène Curie. He and Irène did research on the structure of the atom, garnering the pair a Nobel Prize in 1935.
Bausch & Lomb, incorporated as Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. in 1908, has used materials from Plexiglas to silicone hydrogels to help people make eye contact.
Plutonium named: In 1942, a secret report was submitted suggesting the name “plutonium” for artificial element 94 since it followed neptunium and uranium (elements 93 & 92). In 1971, Darleane Christian Hoffman discovered small amounts of plutonium in a rock formation.
An experiment performed by Robert Millikan in 1909 determined the size of the charge on an electron. He received the Nobel Prize for his work.
Neil Bartlett demonstrates reactive noble gases, 1962. Today, noble gas compounds produce laser beams used in eye surgery and create anti-tumor agents.
Two-dimensional NMR techniques already had advanced the study of protein structures in solutions. In 1988, Richard Ernst’s group published a report in Nature showing how NMR spectroscopy could be used to elucidate structure in three dimensions. Now, studies are underway to increase NMR sensitivity by 100-fold.
March is Women’s History month, honoring women such as Ellen Swallow Richards, American chemist who in 1876 created the Woman’s Laboratory at MIT where women could learn the rudiments of science.
Fiesta del Arbol (Tree Festival), Spain. Marks the day in 1895 when King Alfonso planted a pine tree near Madrid. When trees and other plants need a nutrient boost—fertilizers can help.
In 1957, researchers developed a single-step way to produce acrylonitrile — a key raw material for many everyday fibers and plastics.
Wilhelm Friedrich Kühne, born 1837, coined the term enzyme, but it was Leonor Michaelis and Maud Leonora Menten who showed how these complex compounds make possible the chemical reactions of life.
In 1956, Soviet scientists claimed the development of a new form of electron microscope that enabled atoms to be seen for the first time. Today, advances in imaging are allowing chemists to probe materials with extraordinary resolution using transmission electron microscopy.
Crawford Long first used ether in 1842 to anesthetize a patient to remove a neck tumor, marking the beginning of the use of anesthesia during surgeries. To celebrate this occurrence, this day is now designated as National Doctor’s Day.
Robert Bunsen, born 1811, made many contributions to science, but is most widely recognized for a burner he created for use in flame tests.
A highly reactive metal used in this novelty item will put a spark in April Fools’ Day again and again.
Francis Crick and James Dewey Watson mailed brief article on the double-helix structure of DNA to Nature in 1953. More recently, scientists have designed of a new type of DNA.
This invention, patented more than 180 years ago, insures you’ll be well protected against April showers.
Synthesis of vitamin B6 was announced by Merck, Sharp & Dohme in 1939. This vitamin has a wide variety of functions in the body.
Marshall Gates and G. Tschudi announced synthesis of morphine in 1956. Considered to be the first true drug, it remains the gold standard for relieving severe pain.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) founded in 1876 in New York City. John W. Draper, a scientist interested in photochemistry, served as first president.
Joan Berkowitz, environmental consultant who tackled everything from preventing water pollution to the best ways to treat industrial waste.
In 1886, German scientist, Dr. Carl Gassner, was issued a German patent for the first “dry” cell. The following year, he received a U.S. patent for the dry cell battery, a forerunner to today’s Energizer battery.
The U.S. Bowling Congress kicks off its Women’s Championship Tournament this month. Polymer science and surface chemistry play an important role in this very popular sport.
Arnold Beckman, born 1900, invented the pH meter to help the California citrus industry measure acidity. The device revolutionized scientific instrumentation.
Percy Lavon Julian, born 1899, brought relief to millions with aches and pains caused by rheumatoid arthritis. His synthesis of cortisone made the treatment affordable.
Otto Fritz Meyerhof, born 1884, showed that there was a fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle, garnering him a Nobel Prize in 1922.
For 75 years, the Committee on Professional Training (CPT) has promoted excellence in postsecondary education and provided leadership to the ACS in the professional training of chemists.
NASA’s Nimbus III weather satellite made the first civilian use of nuclear batteries, or “space batteries,” 1969. Officially known as Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), the batteries have provided spacecraft power for many years.
On this day in 2000, the American Chemical Society designated the discovery of this element within natural gas as a National Historic Chemical Landmark at The University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas.
Humphry Davy performed the first physiological experiment on nitrous oxide by inhaling it, 1799. (Don’t try this at home!)
In 1810, a U.S. patent for pineapple cheese was issued to L.M. Norton of Troy, Pennsylvania. Cheese is one of the oldest processed foods known to mankind, and process cheese products such as Cheez Whiz can add flavor to broccoli or cauliflower.
FASC and other African nations and Chemistry Societies played a critical role in obtaining UNESCO and UN support for the declaration of 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry (IYC).
Of all the standard driving safety devices—seat belts, air bags, antilock brakes—many of us take these for granted.
Eduard Buchner, born 1860, was awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for demonstrating that the fermentation of carbohydrates results from the action of different enzymes contained in yeast and not the yeast cell itself. Such complex chemistry is used to develop alcoholic drinks such as this.
Although a year-round treat, spring uniquely promises brightly colored marshmallows shaped like chicks and bunnies.
In 1970, the first nationwide Earth Day was celebrated in the U.S. as an environmental awareness event celebrated by millions. Green chemistry promotes the careful design of chemicals manufacturing processes to reduce the use of toxic components and minimize waste and energy use on Earth Day and everyday.
This popular root is used worldwide as a flavor and a medicine.
In 1997, paleontologists announced the discovery of a trove of fossilized dinosaurs in northeastern China. Using high-tech chemical instruments, Helen Vaughn Michel helped uncover the cause of the mass extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.
Paul M. Cook, born 1924, created a chemistry lab in his house when he was 12 years old, and went on to develop high-performance materials used to build the electronic infrastructure that serve as the backbone of today’s wired world.
In 1856, Eben Horsford received a patent for calcium acid phosphate, one of the ingredients in the basic formula still used today for the manufacture of Rumford Baking Powder.
Wallace Carothers, born 1896, studied the chemistry of giant molecules, leading to production of the first synthetic rubber made in the U.S. and the production of nylon.
Fireflies get their brilliant glow from a light-emitting pigment called luciferin. Similar substances cause the glow of other so-called bioluminescent or light-producing creatures, including certain fish.
In 1969, a patent was issued for the catalytic converter, which uses chemical reactions to turn noxious emissions into less harmful gases. Originally invented by Eugene Houdry, chemical engineer Kathleen C. Taylor and others improved the device.
Joseph John Thomson announced in 1897 the discovery of a particle lighter than all known elements — the electron.
Bees rely on enzymes to create the world’s first ready-to-eat sweetener.
In 1892, Canadian Thomas L. Willson accidentally discovered the electric-arc process for preparing calcium carbide.
This ‘instant’ classic was first unveiled at the World’s Fair in Buffalo, NY this week in 1901.
Occupational Safety and Health Professional (OSHP) Day. Alice Hamilton made the American workplace less dangerous by exposing dangerous working conditions in early twentieth-century America.
Water, a simple yet under-appreciated substance, is essential for life. It plays a key role the biological processes that occur in the human body as well as the process that plants use to convert sunlight into energy.
In 1840, the adhesive postage stamp was first sold in Great Britain. Since then, adhesives have improved greatly, and in 1968 chemists developed these handy little notepapers with an adhesive that allows it to be repositioned with ease.
Monocrystalline silicon is one of the most important technological materials of the last decades. It uses include computer chips and high-performance solar cells.
Mother’s Day: One of the new tools in the medicine kit of Dr. Moms everywhere makes it easier to mend those cuts, scratches, and scrapes.
In addition to his work with the properties of gases, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac contributed to the development of the sulfuric acid industry. Gay-Lussac died on this day in 1850.
In 1852, English chemist Sir Edward Frankland presents the concept later known as chemical valence, a theory fundamental to understanding chemical structure. Frankland also was an advocate for clean water.
Eleven is the theme for the day, so it’s no surprise that Sodium —atomic number 11 — is everywhere, too. Sodium compounds are among the most frequently used materials for industrial and domestic use, and salt is needed for human life.
Death of Roy J. Plunkett, who accidentally discovered Teflon in 1938 when he found that a tank of gaseous tetrafluoroethylene had polymerized to a white powder. During WWII this new polymer was applied as a corrosion-resistant coating to protect metal equipment.
On April 21, 1994, astronomer Alexander Wolszczan discovered the first extrasolar planets, or planets located outside the solar system. Since that time, scientists have discovered at least 529 of these planets, which are also called exoplanets and have started to discover the gases that comprise their atmospheres.
The Birth of the Chemical Enterprise founded in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia as chemical practitioners from Europe settled in early Virginia.
Paper, a mainstay of everyday life from books to store receipts, traces its origins to China and Egypt. Most paper today is made from trees using a wood processing technique called pulping.
In 1960, a synthetic ruby crystal laser was first operated at Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu, California. This first operable laser device helped propel studies in physical chemistry. Today, scientists continue making advances with quantum cascade lasers.
During pool season a cornucopia of additives keeps pool water sparkling and clean.
Together, NMR and MRI revolutionized the practice of chemistry and medicine by providing fast, non-destructive, and non-invasive means for the observation of matter from the atomic to the macroscopic scale.
Max Perutz, born this date in 1914, received the 1962 Nobel Prize for his studies of the structure of hemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues via blood cells.
Chemical sciences in the United States have been immeasurably strengthened by the important and continuing interdisciplinary research conducted by Noyes Laboratory scientists.
Spring cleaning is often accompanied by a wealth of do-it-yourself projects using this ubiquitous abrasive.
First fluid bed reactor for gasoline production went on stream in 1942 to meet growing demand for high-octane fuels.
Born in 1854, Edgar Fahs Smith was regarded as a a pioneer in the study of the history and culture of chemistry in the United States during the early decades of the twentieth century.
In 1916 St. Elmo Brady became the first African American to receive a Ph.D. in chemistry in the United States.
Houdry process for gasoline production unveiled in 1937, conserved natural oil by doubling the amount of gasoline produced by other processes.
In 1857, Robert Mushet received a U.S. patent for an improved method of manufacturing steel to make it more malleable. In 1894, chemists began experiments leading to low-iron alloys that could be dissolved in steel to impart toughness, strength and corrosion resistance.
Scientists decipher the genetic code in 1961 experiment using Synthetic RNA, showing how messenger RNA transcribes genetic information from DNA.
An inventor of industrial-strength fibers that today protect and save thousands of lives.
In 1951, a patent for improved sulfonamide drugs was issued to James W. Clapp and Richard O. Roblin. Sulfonamides — discovered in 1932 by Gerhard Domagk — were the first chemical substances systematically used to cure bacterial infections in humans.
William Ramsay and Morris William Travers discovered krypton in 1898. Krypton is used in certain photographic flash lamps for high-speed photography.
The first American woman to earn a chemistry Ph.D., Lloyd introduced a beet sweetening agent as a sugar substitute.
The sixth-most cited paper in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, “Electric Moments of Molecules in Liquids,” was submitted in 1936, paving the way to a better understanding of polar liquids.
These products help people get a jump-start on their summer glow without exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation.
In 1960, Robert B Woodward first synthesized chlorophyll, one of many natural products whose structure he defined, garnering him a Nobel Prize in 1965.
Prussian blue was the first major synthetic pigment that created an affordable alternative to the expensive mineral-based pigment, ultramarine.
Ibuprofen, commonly used as an alternative to aspirin, received an environmental make-over of its industrial production process in 1997.
Pure Food and Drug Act signed into law by President Theodore Roosevelt, 1906. As time wore on, it became clear that a stronger, more a enforceable law was needed and in 1938 the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was passed.
The chemiluminescence of luminol, which produces light rather than heat when it reacts with an oxidizing agent, has become a valuable tool in crime scene investigations.
Edwin M. McMillan and Philip Abelson announced discovery of neptunium (Np, 93) in 1940. Today, neptunium’s 2.14 million year half-life makes it a challenge for nuclear waste storage and disposal.
Joel E. Goldmacher and Joseph A. Castellano filed a patent application in 1966 for the first room-temperature liquid crystal display. Their work paved the way for today’s 100 billion dollar industry in low-power LCDs, found in popular consumer goods such as laptop computers, televisions and cell phones.
What makes ice cream taste so good? Studies on physical chemistry and flavor release have benefited this sweet treat.
Patented in 1968, this groovy lighting fixture is pure liquid motion created by matching the density of two insoluble ingredients.
Fritz A. Lipmann, born in 1899, discovered coenzyme A and described the central role of ATP in metabolism; he received the Nobel Prize in 1953.
Rechargeable Ni-Cd and NiMH batteries provide power for cordless phones, cordless power tools rechargeable batteries for consumer electronics and for hybrid cars.
Rockefeller University, incorporated in 1901, was among the first to research protein and nucleic acid chemistry.
Biodiesel, made from either waste fry oil or vegetable oil, shows excellent commercial promise as an alternative fuel to gasoline and oil.
Henry E. Roscoe announced the isolation of vanadium in 1867. This transition metal, which helps strengthen steel, was first discovered in Mexico over 200 years ago but was lost in a shipwreck before its identity could be verified.
Hiram Maxim received a patent in 1890 for smokeless gunpowder, an innovation leading to the automatic and semi-automatic firearm. At the time, he likely didn’t anticipate that traces of gunpowder could someday be used to link a suspect to a crime by forensic scientists.
The Age of Plastics dawned in 1907 when Belgian-born chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland made the first plastic.
FDA approved Tagamet® — a widely prescribed treatment for ulcers and heartburn — bringing relief to millions.
Northern latitudes recognize the June solstice as the start of summer – and sunbathers everywhere slather on this material to prevent sunburn.
The game show Jeopardy will celebrate IYC by devoting a category of questions to chemistry on June 21. Spread the word and tune in!
The first standards for the meter and kilogram were deposited in the National Archives of France in 1799. The kilogram is the only unit in the International System of Units still defined by an artifact rather than a fundamental physical property that can be reproduced in different laboratories.
The 2002 Presidential Green Chemistry Award winner NatureworksTM polymers are made from plant-based starting materials through an environmentally friendly process. The fibers and packaging can be recycled or composted at the end of their lifetime.
Many summer athletes ward off dehydration and carbohydrate loss by chugging these typically brightly-colored beverages.
The versatile element, iron, facilitates essential biological functions, provides colors for the artist’s palette, and is abundant on Earth as well as on other planets.
Death in 1829 of James Smithson, a fellow of the Royal Society of London, whose bequest founded the Smithsonian Institution.
Canadian geologist Abraham Gesner patented the process for obtaining kerosene by distilling bituminous coal in 1854. Gesner was a rather flamboyant character who played a major role in the emergence of energy in the early to mid-19th century.
Birth in 1906 of Maria Goeppert-Mayer, who developed the shell model of the nucleus and received a Nobel Prize in 1963. Because of anti-nepotism rules – she was married to another professor — she spent decades teaching university physics as an unpaid volunteer, and did not receive an offer of paid full-time employment until 1959.
RightfitTM Organic pigments received a Presidential Green Chemistry award in 2004. The 2011 awards will be given this week at the 15th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference.
Humphry Davy announced the isolation of the elements barium, calcium, “magnium” (magnesium), and strontium to the Royal Society in 1808. Earlier in his career, he isolated nitrous oxide, naming it “laughing gas” after testing its effects on his friend, the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
Edward Morley’s 1895 paper provides way to determine atomic weight, making chemistry less laborious and more precise.
Despite the World War I British naval blockade, Germany maintained a constant supply of fertilizers and explosives thanks to the Haber-Bosch process for fixing nitrogen from air, which Fritz Haber presented to the German chemical company BASF in 1909.
Bromine, an element discovered in 1826 by Antoine-Jerome Balard and found in a dye extracted from Mediterranean snails, produces the vibrant purples and blues favored by the kings and emperors of antiquity.
Bigger, brighter and more colorful every year, fireworks cap off Independence Day celebrations around the country.
Robert R. Williams pressed his wife’s washing machine into service as a centrifuge to begin his research on the molecular structure of vitamin B1.
An exceptionally versatile chemical, alum has been especially vital as a mordant in the dyeing industry and in the area of water treatment.
Robert Goddard’s patent of the first liquid fuel rocket in 1914 marked the dawn of modern aeronautics. Since then, researchers have developed various materials and lubricants that can hold up in space and on Earth.
Astronomers’ understanding of stellar evolution takes a step forward with Jason Cardelli’s 1994 publication showing the abundances of the heaviest elements, including thallium and lead, yet detected in interstellar dust.
On this date in 1919, the Ford Motor Company is reorganized, with the Ford family retaining full control. Today, Ford is one of many automotive companies exploring plug-in hybrids, flex-fuel vehicles and other technologies meant to curb greenhouse gas emissions.
Blowing bubbles is one way to while away summer’s lazy days.
The commercialization of aluminum began in 1886 when Charles Martin Hall discovered a way to separate pure aluminum from its ore.
The quick-bonding super-strong adhesive, Super Glue, can support more than a ton of weight, but keep it off your fingers!
Iodine and its isotopes keep us healthy in a variety of different ways.
The French celebrate Bastille Day — La Fete Nationale — in commemoration of the 1789 storming of the Bastille, one of the main events in the French Revolution. Wine is strategically paired with many of the foods typically eaten at picnics commemorating this national holiday.
King Charles II grants a charter to the Royal Society (UK) in 1662, establishing one of the world’s oldest scientific societies. The society officially started in 1660 when a group of 12, including Robert Boyle, met at Gresham College and decided to meet weekly to witness experiments and discuss scientific topics.
On this date the first atomic bomb test took place in 1945 at the Trinity Site, Alamogordo Air Force Base in New Mexico. One of the scientists who worked on the Manhattan Project, which developed the bomb, was Glenn Seaborg, a towering figure in 20th century chemistry.
High impact resistance and excellent transparency make polycarbonate the material of choice for water bottles, windshields, and eyeglasses.
The development of soy-based toners has greatly streamlined the process of recycling paper and has the potential to reduce significantly the environmental footprint of waste paper.
Birth in 1921 of Rosalyn Yalow, who was awarded the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her description of the radioimmunological assay (RIA) technique and her insights into peptide hormones such as insulin and the diseases resulting from their improper regulation.
On this day in 1969, astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin took the first steps on the moon and collected soil and rock samples. These samples, along with others from lunar exploration, have been used to study the question of whether the moon is wet or dry.
Russian botanist M. S. Tswett submitted the first paper on chromatography to the Journal of the German Botanical Society, in 1906. His work laid the foundation for the use of chromatography in countless analytic applications, such as drug discovery and food purity testing. Today, the demands for faster and more efficient chemical separations have guided innovators toward the extremes of particle size, pressure, temperature, and other chromatography parameters.
With summer’s hot days comes more bared skin, and more opportunity for people to show off their tattoos.
Sodium polyacrylate, which can hold up to 800 times its weight in water, has found applications from home to Hollywood.
Chemistry, art conservation, and space-age materials meet as conservators try to preserve the space suits worn by NASA astronauts.
The laboratory synthesis of alizarin, the vibrant red chemical in madder dye, transformed the dyeing industry and laid important foundations for the future of the chemical industry.
A true marriage of scientific minds, Pierre Curie and Maria (Marie) Sklodowska wed on this day in 1895. Pierre and Marie Curie shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903.
Death of John Dalton (1844) who investigated the physical and chemical properties of matter and deduced an Atomic Theory (1803) whereby atoms of the same element are the same, but different from the atoms of any other element.
Chemistry is key to insecticide formulations.
Death in 1994 of chemist Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, who used x-ray crystallography to identify the structure of insulin, penicillin, and vitamin B12. She received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1964, making her the third woman, following Marie Curie and Irene Joliot-Curie, to win a Nobel Prize in chemistry.
A metal of great importance to human civilization, tin is a key component in the alloys bronze and pewter, as well as lending its name to several modern kitchen items.
Polyesters have a diverse set of applications including fibers, fabrics, disposable beverage containers, wood finishes, and films to archive and store paper.
Joseph Priestley’s discovery of oxygen, 1774. Today, the American Chemical Society recognizes groundbreaking chemists with the Priestly Medal, the Society’s highest honor.
Production and distribution of radioisotopes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory helps advance medicine, industry, and agriculture.
Powering our cell phones, iPods, and laptops, lithium-ion batteries make our electronic technology portable.
Cisplatin, a drug with the ability to target and kill cancer cells, is a powerful weapon the fight against cancer.
The pristine environment of Yosemite National Park provides ideal circumstances to study the natural chemistry of a snow-melt fed river and evaluate the impact of human activities on the river downstream.
Cut glass objects of lead crystal were developed in response to chemical properties and political factors.
Award-winning low VOC paints from Sherwin-Williams provide the superior surface of solvent-based paints without all the smell.
Hair stylists apply numerous chemical principles as they create curly or straight hair.
Bioprospecting in the hot springs at Yellowstone led to one of the most valuable techniques for DNA analysis used in biochemistry and medicine.
Scavenging oxygen during the fabrication of vacuum tubes and aiding medical imaging of the digestive tract are two important applications of the element, barium.
Patent issued (No. 895.729) in 1908 for Frederick Cottrell’s new method for cleaning up smokestack emissions. The method — called electrostatic precipitation — is still used today to remove pollutants from industrial waste flows.
The frozen food industry was born in 1930, when Clarence Birdseye found a way to flash-freeze foods.
Inks made from dyes vs. from pigments have different advantages and disadvantages and are ideal for different types of printing jobs.
Acrylic Emulsion Technology transformed home painting from a smelly, messy ordeal into a cleaner and more user-friendly process.
How is Polyvinylchloride used in a house? Let me count the ways.
Selman Abraham Waksman co-discovered streptomycin along with Albert Schatz. After the discovery of penicillin, Waksman played a major role in initiating a search for antibiotics among microbes. He died in 1973.
Meteorites can carry amino acids, the building blocks of proteins—of life on Earth. What does the presence of these molecules in meteorites mean?
Although a failure as an anti-cancer drug, AZT has become a front-line defense in managing HIV infections.
The ‘easily recycled metal’, copper has numerous applications including electrical wiring, roofing materials, and for anti-microbial surfaces.
Sodium bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda, is a versatile household chemical with applications for every room of the house.
An example of a banned substance that is still in use for limited, nonhazardous applications.
Although the sink and the dishwasher may be right next to each other in the kitchen, detergents for cleaning dishes are very specific for one method vs. the other.
Originally created to can and store excess produce from the garden and provide vegetables in winter, pickles are now a common addition to summer picnics and cookouts.
Throughout history, lipstick has been made from a wide variety of ingredients and spanned the full range of fashion: from ‘not-dressed-without-it’ to scandalous and back.
1867 death of Michael Faraday, whose many experiments contributed greatly to the understanding of electromagnetism. He published pioneering papers that led to the practical use of electricity.
The invention of integrated circuits to allow rapid fabrication of large arrays of tiny transistors has been the cornerstone of smaller, faster, and more reliable technology.
Development of the Pennsylvania oil industry started in 1859, when Edwin Drake drilled the world’s first oil well.
Chemical and instrumental analysis revealed the rich story behind the painting, The Feast of the Gods.
An all-season material, fiberglass is used for boat hulls and surfboards as well as for thermal and electrical insulation.
Known predominantly for its exploration of space, NASA also leads research efforts to improve our understanding of Earth’s atmosphere.
Graphite pencils, an essential back-to-school supply, have an interesting history.
Chandler Chemistry Laboratory at Lehigh University, which created the model of modern chemical education, opened in 1884.
The blue gray mist that lingers over the Great Smoky Mountains National Park is created by both natural and artificial sources.
Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin and its potential uses in 1928, leading to the development of one of the 20th century’s greatest lifesavers.
Carmine, a red dye extracted from cochineal insects, is an example of a chemical product created in nature’s laboratory.
Date of pamphlet in which Jacobus van’t Hoff proposed a tetrahedral structure for carbon, 1874. It was not universally embraced, but in 1901 he received first Nobel Prize in chemistry.
A must-have for first day of school, these small bits of molded rubber are handy to have when you need to fix something written in pencil or pen.
The brilliant pigments of crayons allow children of all ages to color their worlds.
Scotch® Transparent Tape takes hold in 1930, when 3M sent its first roll of cellophane tape to a prospective client.
When the World Cup for rugby opens in New Zealand, the action will unfold on top of this innovation.
Williams-Miles History of Chemistry Collection, a collection of rare and old chemistry books, opened at Harding University in Searcy, Ark., 1992.
The four basic elements — water, air, earth and fire — provide us a rich tradition for honoring the dead.
Scientists announce discovery of fullerenes, or “buckyballs,” the scientific achievement that gave birth to nanotechnology.
Phosphorus plays a crucial role sustaining life, which is why it is crucial to fertilize crops sufficiently, but without adding too much of a good thing.
The back-to-school stack of loose leaf notebook paper on every child’s desk is the product of numerous chemical and engineering processes.
In India, Engineers’ Day is celebrated on 15 September every year. In the U.S., the field of chemical engineering got its start at MIT in 1888.
Albert Szent-Györgyi, born 1893, isolated ascorbic acid, the agent in citrus juice that helped combat the deadly disease scurvy.
Oktoberfest Begins in Munich, and the drinks will flow thanks to this brewing process.
The mineral selenium is a micronutrient found in meats and nuts and is an important part of a healthy diet.
Safety helmets for a wide range of conditions have become more effective by exploiting the availability of rugged lightweight plastics.
The class of cholesterol-reducing medicines called statins directly attack a major factor contributing to heart disease that kills one in four Americans every year.
The ingredients in shampoo are carefully chosen and combined to result in clean, manageable hair.
Unlike other vitamins, we can absorb Vitamin D from our diets or synthesize it directly through exposure to sunlight.
In 1941, a Kem-Tone® paint, waterborne wall paint was introduced, spurring the expansion of “do-it-yourself” painting.
From mild to spicy, mustard’s zing depends as much on precise chemistry as on the seed itself.
In 1992, scientists reveal oldest genetic material, a 40-million-year old bee, preserved in this yellow ooze.
Chlorine, a common component of drinking water and swimming pools, destroys germs and has helped to virtually eliminate waterborne illnesses like cholera and typhoid that once killed thousands of Americans each year.
Silent Spring, written by Rachel Carson and published on 27 September 1962, is widely credited with helping launch the environmental movement.
First meeting of Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn, 1908. Their collaboration led, 30 years later, to the experimental detection and interpretation of fission.
Named for the Titans of Greek mythology, titanium facilitates our society’s mobility whether through artificial joints or through use in airplanes and spacecraft.
One of the oldest art forms, the fresco, depends on a solid understanding of acid-base chemistry.
This iridescent stone, known in modern times as the birthstone for October, is comprised of water and quartz.
Tamoxifen used to target estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells is an important step on the path to curing this disease.
Born in 1803, John Gorrie, was granted the first U.S. patent for mechanical refrigeration in 1851. Mary Engle Pennington, also born this month in 1872, spent her career studying refrigeration and how best to use it for food preservation.
On this date in 1957, the Soviet Union launches the first satellite in space, Sputnik I, Today, space exploration takes on a new meaning, as scientists examine ways to send people into space for long periods of time.
Baseball player Don Larson pitched a perfect game in the 1956 World Series. To better grip the ball, he likely relied on an ingredient from the Delaware River.
The Coal Facility in Kingsport, Tennessee — the first U.S. plant to use coal rather than petroleum to produce chemicals for plastics —began operating in 1983.
Nobel Prize-winning research resulted in the discovery of cortisone, which has eased chronic joint pain for decades.
Percy Spencer invented the microwave oven, which uses a type of radiation to warm food quickly and efficiently. People now use the device on a daily basis to heat foods ranging from popcorn to frozen dinners. One this day in 1945, the patent application for the microwave cooking process was filed.
Hermann Emil Fischer, born 1852, discovered a family of bases called purines. Caffeine and theobromine—found in tea, coffee, and chocolate—are two familiar purines. Fischer received a Nobel Prize in 1902.
Ernest Orlando Lawrence invented the cyclotron in 1930, paving the way for deep new insights into the innermost nature of matter.
Bakelite opened the door to the Age of Plastics and seeded the growth of a worldwide industry that today employs more than 60 million people.
Death of Paul Hermann Müller, Swiss chemist and Nobel laureate. His work helped in efforts to control diseases such as malaria and yellow fever.
Production of the world’s first totally synthetic textile fiber, nylon, began in 1939 when the first nylon plant began operations.
Alfred Nobel receives the first of 355 patents, a Swedish patent for preparing nitroglycerin, in 1863. He died in 1896, leaving his considerable estate as an endowment for annual awards in chemistry, physics, medicine or physiology, literature, and peace.
A favorite gift for Sweetest Day, this yummy concoction contains around 800 chemical compounds.
National Chemistry Week, Oct. 16-22: There’s an App for that. Chemists on the go can check the safety of cosmetic ingredients, scroll through millions of chemical structures and molecular formulas, and model liquid chromatography flow rates.
During this month in 1951, the first oral contraceptive, the steroid hormone norethindrone, developed by Carl Djerassi and co-workers at Syntex.
Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard initiated a test of the idea of pasteurization by heating blood and urine in sealed flasks, 1862.
Creative solutions by companies such as Dow Chemical are successfully addressing the issue of ozone depletion.
Gases from the 1991 eruption of Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines had a global impact on temperature for several years following the event.
Scientists and farmers have developed a number of strategies to reduce the need for large quantities of pesticides and fertilizers when growing cotton.
October 22nd marks the anniversary of Thomas Edison’s successful test of his prototype for an incandescent light bulb.
It wasn’t until the 1950s that a vigorous tooth brushing campaign was launched to encourage young children to brush twice daily to reduce tooth decay.
Vitamin K plays an essential role in the blood clotting process – another good reason to eat your vegetables.
“Mel’s Diner,” “Lovelace Motel, no vacancies,” and “Blue Moon espresso coffee”
Fiber optics, which transmit pulses of light through tiny, glass fibers, have transformed communication technology.
National Potato Day: Instant mashed potatoes are made possible thanks to this technology, developed in the 1950s.
American biochemist Marie Maynard Daly, died 2003, was the first African American woman in the United States to earn a Ph.D. in chemistry, awarded by Columbia University in 1947.
Tide®, the first heavy-duty synthetic detergent, debuted in October 1946 replacing traditional soaps that didn’t clean well in hard water and left a residue of scum.
For Halloween tomorrow night, many ghouls and goblins may change their hair color – whether it rinses right out or stays until the hair grows out is a matter of chemistry.
After a long evening of ringing doorbells and parading in costume, some trick-or-treaters may find this sweet treat in their bags.
The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover is headed to Mars to follow the carbon.
Chemical company DuPont begins mass-production of the first commercially available synthetic rubber, Duprene (later named neoprene) in 1932. Because it was difficult and expensive to manufacture, the company turned its attention to developing a synthetic “superpolymer,” ultimately leading to the development of nylon.
In 1955, Carlton Schwerdt announced the crystallization of poliomyelitis virus– an essential step in the eventual development of the polio vaccine. Scientists working in vaccine development today have come up with new ways to deliver vaccines, including inhaled powders, microneedle patches, and even bananas.
Peruvian Quechua Indians discovered the first effective treatment for malaria.
Because of natural chemical processes that can attack and degrade paper, librarians and conservationists rely on chemical strategies to preserve our written heritage.
Memory metals have the unusual property of returning to their original parent shape upon heating even after extensive bending and deforming.
It might come as a great surprise that ‘blue jeans’ are dyed by first submerging denim in a pale yellow solution – but that is the mysterious nature of indigo.
Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays in 1895. In 1901, he was awarded the first Nobel Prize in physics, for his identification of this new form of energy.
In 1825, Thomas Drummond heated a ball of lime in front of a reflector, creating a brilliant white light. The discovery led to improvements in theater and lighthouse lighting.
Good Nutrition Month: Nutritionist and biochemist Gladys L. A. Emerson, isolated vitamin E in the 1930s. She then went on to work on the whole B complex of vitamins.
Scores of U.S. veterans can celebrate Veteran’s Day thanks to high-tech ceramics that provide protection against bullets or other projectiles.
Antoine Lavoisier described to the French Royal Academy of Sciences in 1783 experiments that show water to be a compound, not an element.
Synthesizing succinic acid from bio-based starting materials could provide an important and plentiful petroleum alternative for the manufacture of everything from de-icers to pesticides.
In addition to its use as a laundry additive, bleach’s antimicrobial activities have seen widespread use in cleaning up houses flooded by hurricanes or tropical storms.
Polypropylene and high-density polyethylene plastics — the plastic that made the Hula Hoop® possible — discovered in 1955.
Vital for healthy eyes, Vitamin A is luckily found in plenty of food sources including animal protein, dairy products, and fresh fruits and vegetables.
Platinum: the metal and the metaphor are associated with high privilege and outstanding performance.
Chemists use models to envision molecules, to explore complex systems and to predict chemical reactions.
Photoionization detectors are light, portable instruments that are invaluable for assessing potential chemical hazards onsite.
Small quantities of radioactive pharmaceuticals minimize risk while creating invaluable opportunities for physicians to image and evaluate the body without surgery.
Fire extinguishers, which are effective at controlling small fires, work by removing the oxygen needed to maintain the combustion process.
Paul Zamecnik (1912 – 2009) was the discoverer of cell-free protein synthesis systems, transfer RNA and the antisense principle. Nov 22, 2011 would have been his 99th birthday.
Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley, born on this day in 1887, organized the modern Periodic Table of the Elements on the basis of atomic number, or proton number, which uniquely identifies a chemical element and helps predict the properties and reactivity of the elements.
Although the amino acid, tryptophan, is especially associated with turkey, it is actually present in many every-day foods including poultry, eggs, cheese, meat, and fish.
Probably no one misses the task of clapping together elementary school erasers to clean them, but chalk is still essential to many sports and art endeavors.
Charles Hatchett announced discovery of columbium (niobium, Nb, element 41) before the Royal Society, 1801. Niobium is used in jet engines and rockets.
Hard or sweet, apple cider is the iconic beverage of the season.
Adhesives bind our wounds, repair our mistakes, and help attach that gold star to a job well done.
Metallic magnesium finds applications in lightweight alloys and in high-temperature combustion reactions. Not to be confused, magnesium ions play important roles in hundreds of biological enzymes.
Following a heart attack or stroke, clot busters are powerful emergency medications that break up blood clots. Blood thinners prevent the formation of future problematic blood clots.
Mauve was one of the first dyes derived from a synthetic process rather than from natural materials and its availability prompted a fad for purple in Europe in the 1850s.
Cloves are a potent spice used in different cuisines from around the world.
Vitamin C not only plays an important role in good health, it has been a significant factor in the historic exploration of our world.
Charles Holmes Herty, born 1867, found a way to make paper from pine trees, creating badly needed jobs in the South and savings millions of Northern trees.
Husband and wife team Gerty Theresa Cori and Carl Ferdinand Cori identified the process that muscle cells use to make and store energy — a finding that has helped in treating diabetes.
The different classifications of paint such as oils, acrylics, and latex refer to the ‘binder,’ the component that sticks the colors to the wall or to a canvas and protects the finished product from damage.
Whether ringing in the holidays, gracing a winter evening with a chandelier of lights, or simply opening a door, brass lends a glowing touch.
In addition to wool’s outstanding performance as a cold weather fabric, its fire resistant properties make it a desirable material for carpets and upholstery.
The 42nd annual Christmas Chemistry Lecture given by Professor Bassam Shakashiri on December 10th and 11th celebrates the chemistry of element #42, molybdenum.
Hermann Staudinger, won Nobel Prize in Chemistry for polymer science work, 1953. His research helped spur the development of polymer science in industry.
In 1902, a group of students formed Alpha Chi Sigma, the only national professional fraternity specializing in chemistry. The organization now has a membership of more than 63,000 men and women.
Generations of aspiring ballerinas have gotten their start by dancing in December productions of The Nutcracker. For their leaps, turns, and pirouettes, dancers rely on rosin to secure safe landing.
In the cold of winter, bread with its complex chemistry, is at once a daily staple, holiday treat, and a symbol of life itself.
Chemistry has helped cosmetics evolve from concoctions of messy, toxic ingredients to today’s formulations that yield smooth, easy, and long-lasting applications of color to adorn the eyes.
Listed among the ingredients of foods such as salad dressing, ice cream and canned soup is a substance called xanthan gum. This groundbreaking product and a process for producing it was discovered in the 1950s by chemist Allene Rosalind Jeanes, who died this day in 1995.
Used for money, jewelry, tableware and making mirrors, the lustrous white metal silver is also a common feature of holiday decorations.
Whether arranging flowers in a decorative vase, setting a table for a holiday celebration, or indulging in a relaxing cup of tea, porcelain is often a part of special events or everyday pleasures.
Frankincense And Myrrh, aromatic resins formed from the sap of trees, may have medicinal properties.
Thomas Andrews, born 1813, demonstrated the continuity of the gaseous and liquid states showing that during changes between the two states, physical properties display no abrupt changes.
At the darkest time of the year, candles are an important symbol of hope and life in this month’s Jewish celebration of Hanukkah, Christian celebration of Christmas, and in the celebration of Kwanzaa.
First Day of Winter –a pair of these will keep your hand warm via an exothermic reaction that, in essence, creates rust.
Silver was the original material used to make tinsel, the metallic ribbons that decorate Christmas trees.
Swedish chemist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, born 1722, discovered zeolite. Today, natural and synthetic zeolites are used as catalysts to boost the amount of gasoline obtainable from petroleum, thanks to pioneering work of another chemist, Paul B. Weisz.
Radiation chemistry, which uses high energy electrons to alter the structure of polymers, goes commercial Dec 24, 1957.
Christmas present is made all the sweeter to mind and heart as our sense of smell helps us recall and savor memories of Christmas past.
The pungent flavor of candy canes, peppermint is also favored for ice cream, toothpaste, and tea.
In spite of its tendency to break when handled roughly, optical transparency and thermal properties make glass ideal for items ranging from drinking vessels and laboratory containers to works of art.
The first patent for this chewy treat was awarded today in 1869, though the ancient Greeks had discovered their own version.
Often a finishing touch on primping for a party, perfumes are complex combinations of natural and synthetic chemicals.
Photography is a powerful means of capturing memories through pictures and of connecting with friends and relatives separated by distance or time.
Toasting in the New Year: champagne and all other sparkling wines must conform to just one law, Henry’s Law.